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Past Explorations of the Planet Venus
LAUNCH FROM NAME INTENTION RESULT
1961 Feb 4 USSR 1VA - 1 impact Stranded in Earth orbit
1961 Feb 12 USSR Venera 1 impact Lost when attitude control sensor overheated
1962 Jul 22 USA Mariner 1 flyby Lost and splashed in North Atlantic
1962 Aug 25 USSR 2MV-1 - 1 landing Stranded in Earth orbit
1962 Aug 27 USA Mariner 2 flyby First successful planetary mission found Venus has small magnetic field
1962 Sep 1 USSR 2MV-1 - 2 landing Stranded in Earth orbit
1962 Sep 12 USSR 2MV-2 - 1 photo flyby Stranded in Earth orbit
1964 Mar 27 USSR 3MV-1 - 5 landing Stranded in Earth orbit
1964 Apr 2 USSR Zond 1 landing Pressure loss and corona discharge
1965 Nov 12 USSR Venera 2 flyby Thermal control failure
1965 Nov 16 USSR Venera 3 landing First impact on another planet. Thermal failure
1965 Nov 23 USSR 3MV-4 - 6 flyby Exploded in Earth orbit
1967 Jun 12 USSR Venera 4 landing First planetary atmosphere probe, crushed at an attitude of about 16 miles
1967 Jun 14 USA Mariner 5 flyby Fly-by, radio occultation
1967 Jun 17 USSR V-67 - 2 landing Stranded in Earth orbit
1969 Jan 5 USSR Venera 5 landing Successful, crushed at an altitude of about 11 miles
1969 Jan 10 USSR Venera 6 landing Successful, crushed at an altitude of about 11 miles
1970 Aug 17 USSR Venera 7 landing First successful planetary landing
1970 Aug 22 USSR V-70 - landing Stranded in Earth orbit
1972 Mar 27 USSR Venera 8 landing Measured surface illumination
1972 Mar 31 USSR 3V landing Stranded in Earth orbit
1973 Nov 3 USA Mariner 10 photo flyby First good pictures of Venus followed by gravity assist to Mercury
1975 Jun 8 USSR Venera 9 orbit and landing First pictures of the surface of Venus, 4-month orbital photo study of clouds
1975 Jun 14 USSR Venera 10 orbit and landing Same as Venera 9, one of two cameras failed on each lander
1978 May 20 USA Pioneer 12 orbit Radar mapping, photo study of clouds, operated 14 years
1978 Aug 8 USA Pioneer 13 impact Cluster of 5 atmosphere probes
1978 Sep 9 USSR Venera 11 flyby and landing Spectra from clouds to surface, atmosphere chemical analysis
1978 Sep 14 USSR Venera 12 flyby and landing Both color cameras, rock analysis, failed on both Venera 11 and 12
1981 Oct 30 USSR Venera 13 flyby and landing Color images and rock analysis
1981 Nov 4 USSR Venera 14 flyby and landing Color images and rock analysis
1983 Jun 2 USSR Venera 15 orbit High resolution radar mapping
1983 Jun 7 USSR Venera 16 orbit High resolution radar mapping
1984 Dec 15 USSR Vega 1 flyby and landing Night landing of a balloon probe dropped enroute to Halley's comet encounter
1984 Dec 21 USSR Vega 2 flyby and landing Same as Vega 1
1989 May 4 USA Magellan orbit High resolution radar mapping
1989 Oct 18 USA Galileo flyby Images of Venus then gravity assist to Jupiter
1997 Oct 15 USA Cassini flyby Images of Venus and then gravity assist to Saturn
SOURCE:   STO

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